This is a how-to guide that covers steps for achieving specific objectives, principles governing behavior, descriptions of effective teaching strategies, interventions, and accommodations that a special educator can use in his or her classroom. The following are curriculum guides for Academic Interventions in English, including Reading, Writing, and Spelling. It was originally generated as a curriculum guide for students with intellectual disabilities but could be used for a broader audience.
Effective Teaching Strategies
- Community-based Instruction: This technique is appropriate whenever possible to allow students to practice their self-help, social, and other skills in the actual environment they will be using them and not just inside the classroom.
- Authentic Instruction: This technique requires the teacher to use their knowledge of the student to make curriculum interesting, applicable, and understandable to them and their lives.
- Unit Approach: This technique is used when a teacher picks a theme or core concept that they teach throughout curricular areas.
- Level-to-level Planning: This technique requires that teacher assess the students and meet them directly at where his/her skill level is
- Story Enhancement: This strategy is used when a teacher picks or makes a story because of how it links to the subject being taught.
When teaching reading, it is essential to consider age appropriateness of curriculum, the students understanding of all alphabets (cursive and non, capital, and lower-case), the students process to read, and how to make it simple.
- ITA: Initial Teaching alphabet is an alphabet consisting of 44 letters all-lowercase. Each letter represents each sound in the English language.
- Basal Reading: This program is widely used, but has both pros and cons. It is based on a small group approach of relatively equally skilled students.
- Edmark Program: This program is for those learning to read and is applicable to those with disabilities. It teaches sight recognition of words and emphasizes word meaning.
- GIA: Goal Instruction Analysis is a highly specific strategy to find the students skill level, as well as, their needed supports and next steps.
- Spelling: Use process and repetition, i.e. Study the word; Say the word; Cover the word; See the word; Spell the word; Check the word; Write the word correctly
- Specific Strategy (in order):
- Language Concept Development is the first step toward being able to read and encompasses the student’s core speech concepts
- Beginning Sight Wordis teaching a few key words that the student is confident with in order to make reading easier and efficient
- Word Attack Skills includes sounding out common constants through use of flashcards and work sheets
- Functional Reading Skills helps students add sight vocabulary and work toward efficient reading of material
- Reading/Listening Center: Provides accessible resources for children to engage and interact with stories and books in order to increase their practice and interest
- Diagnosis/prescription: It is important to understand where students are using applicable, appropriate tests. From here, the teacher can make a plan on how to teach the student.
- Behavior Modification- Inappropriate Disruptions: Model acceptance of the student and help him/her to find an alternative appropriate behavior to replace disturbance. Practice the new behavior through role-play with the student.
- Social Interactions- Physical Interaction w/ Others: Redirect the behavior to appropriate contact, like giving a high five, and then repeatedly practice this interaction throughout various activities in various situations.
- Educational Performance- Class Participation: Maintain high expectations, but modify curriculum toward interest using a different focus of the same topic.
- Classroom Attitude- Demonstrates Learned helplessness: Provide numerous opportunities for the student to demonstrate the abilities that they can do successfully and structure activities that foster the student’s leadership abilities.
Another great Resource is Intervention Central